Comparison of propolis and calcium hydroxide in terms of mineralization and cytotoxicity using dental pulp stem cells
Objectives This study aimed to compare the in vitro cytotoxic activity of propolis, a bioactive material made by the honeybee, and calcium
hydroxide (CH) and their effect on formation of mineralized nodules by human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs).
Methods In this in vitro study, HDPSCs were obtained from the Cellular and Molecular Oral Biology Laboratory of School of Dentistry, Shahid
Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. In order to evaluate the proliferative effect of propolis and CH, HDPSCs were incubated with
different concentrations of propolis (0–32 mg/mL) and CH (0–4.8 mg/mL). Twenty-four and 48 hours later, the methylthiazolyl diphenyltetrazolium
bromide (MTT) assay was carried out to evaluate the proliferation potential and viability of HDPSCs treated with propolis and
CH. The effect of propolis and CH on mineralization of HDPSCs was assessed by alizarin red staining.
Results The MTT assay revealed that propolis at its highest concentration caused the greatest proliferation after 24 and 48 hours. Alizarin
test showed that the lowest concentrations of CH and propolis at 14 days induced the formation of calcium nodules but at 21 days, propolis
was deposited on the cells and calcification was not well recognizable.
Conclusion Propolis led to higher cell vitality at all concentrations in comparison to CH. However, due to its deposition on the cells, its effects
on mineralization at 48 hours could not be determined.
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